How Long and When to Make Takbeerat After Prayers During Eid

The takbeerat of the days of Eid are said after prayers during the days of Eid. There are a number of differences of opinion here:

 

The Form:

Some schools held that they should be to say “Allahu Akbar” three times and then “La ilaha illa Allah” followed by “Allahu Akbar” twice and then “wa lillahi al-hamd.” Others held that the first set of “Allahu Akbar” should be two and not three. This whole set should be repeated three times after the prayer.

 

When:

The majority held that this set of takbeerat should be said after the obligatory prayers which are held in congregation. Some held that they can be said after optional prayers as well and others held that they can be said when prayers are made individually as well as in congregation.

 

For How Long:

Most scholars said that these takbeerat should start from after fajr on the Day of ‘Arafah. Some held that they should continue until Zuhr of the Day of Eid and others held that they should continue until ‘Asr on the third of the days of Tashreeq. In this latter opinion it would mean that the takbeerat are made for five days (Day of ‘Arafah, First Day of Eid, Three Days of Tashreeq after the First Day of Eid).

 

What to Do:

When praying in congregation one should follow whatever the Imam of that congregation is teaching and leading his followers in. This is because the unity of the congregation is more important than an individual opinion. However, if on one’s own I would advise making the takbeerat for all five days and after obligatory prayers whether in congregation or individually. We are greatly in need of the remembrance of Allah in our lives.

 

*This is summarized from the Kuwaiti Fiqh Encyclopedia.

التَّكْبِيرُ.
وَصِيغَتُهُ: اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ، وَاَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ (1) .
وَخَالَفَتِ الشَّافِعِيَّةُ وَالْمَالِكِيَّةُ، فَذَهَبُوا إِلَى جَعْل التَّكْبِيرَاتِ الأُْولَى فِي الصِّيغَةِ ثَلاَثًا بَدَل ثِنْتَيْنِ.
ثُمَّ إِنَّ هَذَا التَّكْبِيرَ يُعْتَبَرُ شِعَارًا لِكُلٍّ مِنْ عِيدَيِ الْفِطْرِ وَالأَْضْحَى، أَمَّا مَكَانُ التَّكْبِيرِ وَحُكْمُهُ وَكَيْفِيَّتُهُ فِي عِيدِ الْفِطْرِ فَقَدْ مَرَّ الْحَدِيثُ عَنْهُ ف / 12.
وَأَمَّا حُكْمُهُ وَمَكَانُهُ فِي عِيدِ الأَْضْحَى، فَيَجِبُ التَّكْبِيرُ مُرَّةً عَقِبَ كُل فَرْضٍ أُدِّيَ جَمَاعَةً، أَوْ قُضِيَ فِي أَيَّامِ الْعِيدِ، وَلَكِنَّهُ كَانَ مَتْرُوكًا فِيهَا، مِنْ بَعْدِ فَجْرِ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ إِلَى مَا بَعْدِ عَصْرِ يَوْمٍ الْعِيدِ.
وَذَهَبَ أَبُو يُوسُفَ وَمُحَمَّدٌ (وَهُوَ الْمُعْتَمَدُ فِي الْمَذْهَبِ) إِلَى أَنَّهُ يَجِبُ بَعْدَ كُل فَرْضٍ مُطْلَقًا،
وَلَوْ كَانَ الْمُصَلِّي مُنْفَرِدًا أَوْ مُسَافِرًا أَوِ امْرَأَةً، مِنْ فَجْرِ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ إِلَى مَا بَعْدَ عَصْرِ الْيَوْمِ الثَّالِثِ مِنْ أَيَّامِ التَّشْرِيقِ (1) .
أَمَّا مَا يَتَعَلَّقُ بِحُكْمِ التَّكْبِيرِ: فَسَائِرُ الْمَذَاهِبِ عَلَى أَنَّ التَّكْبِيرَ سُنَّةٌ أَوْ سُنَّةٌ مُؤَكَّدَةٌ وَلَيْسَ بِوَاجِبٍ.
وَالْمَالِكِيَّةُ يُشْرَعُ التَّكْبِيرُ عِنْدَهُمْ إِثْرَ خَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ صَلاَةً تَبْدَأُ مِنْ ظُهْرِ يَوْمِ النَّحْرِ (2) .
وَأَمَّا مَا يَتَعَلَّقُ بِنَوْعِ الصَّلاَةِ الَّتِي يُشْرَعُ بَعْدَهَا التَّكْبِيرُ: فَقَدِ اخْتَلَفَتْ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَذَاهِبُ:
فَالشَّافِعِيَّةُ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يُشْرَعُ التَّكْبِيرُ عَقِبَ كُل الصَّلَوَاتِ فَرْضًا كَانَتْ أَمْ نَافِلَةً عَلَى اخْتِلاَفِهَا لأَِنَّ التَّكْبِيرَ شِعَارُ الْوَقْتِ فَلاَ يَخْتَصُّ بِنَوْعٍ مِنَ الصَّلاَةِ دُونَ آخَرَ (3) .
وَالْحَنَابِلَةُ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِالْفُرُوضِ الْمُؤَدَّاةِ جَمَاعَةً مِنْ صَلاَةِ الْفَجْرِ يَوْمَ عَرَفَةَ إِلَى صَلاَةِ الْعَصْرِ مِنْ آخِرِ أَيَّامِ التَّشْرِيقِ، فَلاَ يُشْرَعُ عَقِبَ مَا أُدِّيَ فُرَادَى مِنَ الصَّلَوَاتِ (4) .
وَالْمَالِكِيَّةُ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يُشْرَعُ عَقِبَالْفَرَائِضِ الَّتِي تُصَلَّى أَدَاءً، فَلاَ يُشْرَعُ عَقِبَ مَا صُلِّيَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَضَاءً مُطْلَقًا أَيْ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ مَتْرُوكَاتِ الْعِيدِ أَمْ لاَ

Women Praying Beside Men with a Barrier

* Taken from islamqa.info here.

 

In our town there is a mosque where the women pray alongside the men, but they are separated by a wall. Is this action valid, or must the women pray behind the men?

 

Praise be to Allaah.
Firstly:If a woman prays alongside a man but there is a barrier between them, such as a wall, or a gap which is wide enough for a person to stand and pray there, then the prayer is valid according to the majority of scholars among the Hanafis, Maalikis, Shaafa’is and Hanbalis, but they differed with regard to a woman who prays beside a man with nothing separating them. The Hanafis are of the view that she invalidates the prayer of three men: one to her right, another to her left and a third behind her, subject to conditions that they mentioned.See al-Mabsoot (1/183); Badaa’i’ al-Sanaa’i’ (1/239); Tabyeen al-Haqaa’iq(1/136-139).Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, discussing the difference of opinion on this topic and summing up the Hanafi view: If a man prays and there is a woman beside him, that does not invalidate his prayer or hers, whether he is leading the prayer or praying behind an imam. This is our view and it was also the view of Maalik and the majority. Abu Haneefah said: If the woman is not praying or she is offering a different prayer than him and is not praying with him, his prayer and hers are both valid. If she is praying with him – and in Abu Haneefah’s view she cannot be praying with him unless the imam intended to lead the women in prayer too – then if she joins the prayer and stands beside a man, the prayer of the men who are standing on either side of her is invalidated, but her prayer and the prayer of the man who is beside the man who is beside her are not invalidated, because there is a barrier between her and him. If she is in the row in front of him, the prayer of those who are beside her and behind her are invalidated, but the prayer of those who are beside the ones who are beside her is not invalidated, because there is a barrier between them. If the women’s row is behind the imam and there is a row of men behind them, then the prayer of the row behind them is invalidated, but by analogy the prayer of the rows behind that row is not invalidated, because there is a barrier. But we say that the prayer of the rows of men behind them is invalidated, even if there are a hundred rows. If she stands beside the imam, then the prayer of the imam is invalidated, because she is next to him, and his view is that if the prayer of the imam is invalidated, the prayer of those who are praying behind him is also invalidated, and her prayer is also invalidated, because she is one of those who are praying behind him.

This view is based on weak evidence and this argument has no basis. Our view is that the prayer is valid unless there is sound shar’i evidence to prove that it is invalid, and they do not have such proof. Our companions drew an analogy from her standing in the funeral prayer, which is not invalidated in their view. Allaah knows best which is correct, and to Him be all praise. He is the Source of strength, guidance and protection. End quote from al-Majmoo’(3/331).

But if there is a barrier, the Hanafis agree with the majority that it does not invalidate the prayer of either of them, as it says in Tabyeen al-Haqaa’iq(1/138)

Secondly:

Undoubtedly the Sunnah is for the women’s rows to be behind the men, as was the case at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Al-Bukhaari (380) and Muslim (658) narrated from Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) that his grandmother Mulaykah invited the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to a meal that she had made for him, and he ate some, then he said: “Get up and let me lead you in prayer.” Anas said: I went and got a reed mat of ours that had become blackened from long use, and sprinkled it with water. Then the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood, and the orphan and I stood behind him, and the old lady stood behind us, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) led us in praying two rak’ahs, then he left.

Al-Haafiz said in al-Fath: This hadeeth teaches us a number of things… that women should stand behind the men’s rows, and a woman should form a row on her own if no other woman is present. End quote.

But if what you describe happens, and a woman is praying alongside men, the prayer is valid, praise be to Allaah.

And Allaah knows best.

Holding Jumuah Before the Normal Time for Zuhr

Before reading this article I recommend people to read this: What is My Methodology?

Several people have asked about the time at which the first jumuah prayer is held at ICOI during this time of the year. The prayer sermon starts at 12:30pm and zuhr doesn’t come in until around 12:50 so how is permissible to do this? And now during Ramadan, you are praying three jumuahs with one at 12?

 

Surely this question is asked as an evidence of one’s faith and their keenness to follow the teachings of Islam. It is praiseworthy for people to take personal responsibility for their deeds and to seek answers to basic questions in their faith. It is also appreciated that most people who have spoken to me about this issue have done so with beautiful character and manners.

 

Although the Quran and the Sunnah are undoubtedly and without dispute the primary sources of guidance for Muslims, we rely on the works of erudite scholars throughout history in order to understand these sources. That being said, our foundation in holding the service before zuhr is in the Hanbali school of jurisprudence. It is there that we find the opinion of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal that it is permissible to perform the jumuah prayer in the time of the Eid prayer (i.e. from duha time all the way through zuhr to asr).

Many scholars and fiqh councils have addressed this question. Among them are the Assembly of Muslim Jurists of American (AMJA) which stated in the decisions related to its Sixth Conference:

  • If the necessity or need demands that the Jumu’ah prayer or the sermon is moved forward to before the Zawaal (i.e. Dhuhr time), it is permissible to do so, acting upon the madhhab of Imam Ahmad, rahimahullaah.

It was also considered acceptable, while not optimal, by Shaykh Ibn Baaz (ra) as mentioned in this article which discusses the question in much detail.

Dr. Hatem al-Haj was also asked this question and answered that prayer is acceptable in the time shortly before zuhr based on the Hanbali school and he mentions briefly one of the evidences of the school as well. That answer can be found here.

 

We ask Allah to accept from all of us and forgive us for our shortcomings. For anyone who still does not feel comfortable with the timing of the first prayer they are more than welcome to attend the second.

 

In service,

Jamaal Diwan

 

Q&A: Switching Off One’s Cell Phone During Prayer

Answered by the team at islamtoday.net. Original fatwa can be found here.

 

Question

If my cell phone starts ringing while I am praying in congregation at the mosque, what should I do? Must I break off my prayer to switch it off? Is it possible for me to take out my cell phone and switch if off without nullifying my prayers?

Answered by

Sheikh Ahmad al-Khalîl, professor at al-Imâm University, Qasîm Branch
You should take care to turn off your cell phone before entering the mosque. If you forget to do so and the phone rings while you are praying, then you should turn it off to avoid causing any disturbance to your fellow worshippers who are humbling themselves before Allah in prayer.

When switching off your cell phone, you must take care to use the least amount of movement possible. Such a small movement will not invalidate your prayer, because you are doing it for the benefit of the prayer.

And Allah knows best.

Q&A: Prayer in a Moving Vehicle

This question is most commonly applied to airplanes nowadays. This fatwa is from islamtoday.net and the original can be found here.

 

Question

What is the ruling of prayer in a moving vehicle. In many cases, a passenger cannot leave from the vehicle during the time of the prayer, even when the vehicle is only a car.

Answered by

Sheikh `Abd Allah al-Suhaybânî, professor at al-Imâm University, al-Qasîm branch
It is permissible to perform prayer inside a moving vehicle such as a train, plane, ship or other means of conveyance.

This is conditional on the person being able to properly observe all the pillars, obligations and conditions of prayer while riding in the vehicle. Otherwise, the person should wait until he gets out of the vehicle and perform the prayer properly.

However, in a case where the person thinks that the prayer time could elapse before he arrives or before he will be able to leave from the vehicle, then it is permissible for him to perform prayer according to his circumstances.

Some people of knowledge have offered the opinion that if the prayer that the person needs to perform while in a moving vehicle can be combined with the prayer that comes after it (Zuhr with `Asr or Maghrib with `Ishâ’), then the person may combine the prayer with the one after it after departing from the vehicle.

In brief, the person who is forced to pray an obligatory prayer in a moving vehicle has to observe the pillars, obligations and conditions of the prayer to the best of his abilities.

In case he truly cannot do so, such as often is the case with facing the qiblah and standing, then he will be exempted. These things are obligatory when possible and are exempted in cases where they are not possible.

Allah says: “On no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear.” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 286]

And says: “Fear Allah as much as you can.” [Sûrah al-Taghâbun: 16]

Q&A: Person who prayed part of his prayer in congregation becoming imam of another

This is a question that comes up a lot in the masajid. The following answer is from en.islamtoday.net which is a website supervised by Shaykh Salman al-Auda. Original article here.

 

Question

If I come to the mosque late and find that the imam has finished praying but that some people who prayed part of their prayer behind the imam are still completing their prayers, should I take one of them as my imam and follow him in prayer? Can such a person become an imam for another?

Answered by

Sheikh Sa`d al-Shuwayrikh
If a person arrives late at the mosque and finds that the imam has finished praying, he should wait for some other latecomers to arrive and pray along with them. There is no evidence to support the practice of joining someone who had prayed part of his prayer in congregation with the imam and who is presently completing his prayer on his own.

Therefore, we say that it is better to wait and start a new congregation with other latecomers to the mosque instead of making indications to people who are busy finishing their prayers that you want them to act as your imam.

However, in the event of someone doing so, it is permissible for the person being followed to change his intention from that of praying on his own to that of being an imam for others, since it is generally permissible for a person to change his intention in this way.

The evidence for this is that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was once praying alone at night, then Ibn `Abbâs came and joined him in prayer. The Prophet (peace be upon him) completed his prayer leading Ibn `Abbâs. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (883) and Sahîh Muslim (763)]

And Allah knows best.

Q: Why Did You Change Your Fajr Time?

A:

 

Recently a number of local Imams and students of knowledge gathered to discuss the different fajr timings that are used in the prayer timings charts. After discussion and actual observation of fajr they issued the following:

In preparation for this year’s Ramadan calendar, the Islamic Shura Council of Southern California tasked a team of brothers from the Southern California community to go out into the Mojave desert to observe the timing of Fajr. Their observations, which have been recorded in a separate report, corroborated the view that the beginning of Fajr approximately corresponds to the time the center of the sun makes a 15 degree angle with the horizon. The conclusions were discussed and verified with Dr. Khalid Shaukat, from moonsighting.com, and Dr. Ahmed Salama, a NASA physicist and astronomer.

Based on the information above, the Shura Council makes the following recommendations to the community:

1.     The timing of Fajr should be calculated according to the 15 degree method.

2.     As a precautionary measure, imsak (beginning of the fast) should be observed 5 minutes before the 15 degree time.

3.     Fajr prayer should not be performed before the 15 degree time.

Space Between Feet in Prayer

A very common issue that comes up is how one’s feet should be in prayer. There are a couple of core points that should be kept in mind here:

– This is a minor issue and as such it’s difficult to even find it in the books of fiqh because it was never given much space.

– It is an issue of what is best and not what is required.

– Concentration in prayer is required and therefore the placement of one’s feet in relation to those around them should not distract them from the essence of prayer.

– The nature of minor issues such as this is that they are often areas of valid scholarly difference of opinion. It should not be turned into a big issue and the various view points should be respected.

– If taken literally it applies to the beginning of prayer and does not need to be re-initiated at the beginning of each new unit of prayer.

The link below is to a PDF taken from the book “Key Proofs in Hanafi Fiqh” by Shaykh Abdur Rahman ibn Yusuf. It is a little difficult to read but not too long and gives a cursory look at the topic.

 

Space Between Feet In Prayer

Salat al-Istikhara — The Guidance Prayer

Many people have questions about al-istikhārah, in the following article we will cover some of the things that the scholars have said about it and how to know what to choose after making it.

 

It was narrated by al-Bukhārī and Muslim on the authority of Jābir ibn ʿAbdillah, may Allah be pleased with them both:

The Prophet used to teach us to make the prayer of al-istikhārah in all affairs, the same way that he would teach us chapters from the Quran. He would say, “If one of you feels inclined to do something then let them pray two units of optional prayer, then say: ‘O Allah! I seek Your guidance by virtue of Your knowledge, and I seek ability by virtue of Your power, and I ask You of Your great bounty. You have power; I have none. And You know; I know not. You are the Knower of hidden things. O Allah! If in Your knowledge, (this matter*) is good for my religion, my livelihood and my affairs, immediate and in the future, then ordain it for me, make it easy for me, and bless it for me. And if in Your knowledge, (this matter*) is bad for my religion, my livelihood and my affairs, immediate and in the future, then turn it away from me, and turn me away from it. And ordain for me the good wherever it may be, and make me content with it.’”

Click here for the Arabic.

 

It’s Ruling

As a result of this hadith there is a consensus between the scholars that al-istikhārah is recommended and part of the Sunnah. They said that the purpose of it is to depend entirely upon Allah in one’s affairs, as He is the One who sees and knows all. Therefore, the person who makes al-istikhārah should not go into it with their mind already made up, but rather have an open heart and mind and ask Allah to guide them to what is best.

 

What Kinds of Things to Make It For

They also noted that it is not to be prayed for things that are prohibited, disliked, or required, but rather only for things that are permissible or recommended (if a choice must be made between various recommended actions). This is because in the first group of rulings there is really no decision to be made, but rather action to be taken. In the second group there can be decisions that need to be made and al-istikhārah is prescribed for such decisions.

 

Consultation and al-Istikhārah

Imam al-Nawawi says about this: “It is recommended for the person to consult others before making al-istikhārah. He/she should consult those whom they trust to care and give sincere advice and are reliable in their piety and experience.”[1]Many times we consult others during or after praying al-istikhārah, but Imam al-Nawawi is specifically stating here that such consultations should actually take place before the supplication is made.

 

When to Do It

If one is making al-istikhārah without praying two units of prayer with it then they can make it at any time because duʿāʾ is not restricted by any times. However, if one is praying two units with it then, according to the four schools, they should not pray it during the times wherein prayer is disliked. The Shafiʿis stated an exception for this in the case of the person who is praying in the Sacred area of Mecca by making analogy on the two units which are performed after al-Ṭawāf, because they are not restricted by any times.

 

How to Do It

The scholars stated that there are three different ways to make al-istikhārah.

1)      The best way, which is agreed upon by the four schools[2], is to pray two units of optional prayer then make the supplication afterwards, as mentioned in the hadith.

2)      The three schools except the Hanbalis said that one can also make the supplication without performing two units of prayer before it if need be.

3)      The Malikis and Shafiʿis also allowed one to make the supplication after any prayer, even if it is an obligatory prayer.

 

Regardless of which of these the person chooses they should follow the manners of supplication such as beginning by praising Allah and praying for His Messenger and ending by praying again for the Prophet, peace be upon him.

 

The person should also not rush when awaiting a response to their prayers because the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “A person’s prayers will be answered as long as he or she does not become impatient and say, ‘I prayer and my prayer was not answered.’”[3]

 

The scholars differed as to how many times the prayer can be repeated, with many of them mentioning seven times. However, if one does experience the results of the supplication after seven times then they may continue in their al-istikhārah, or they make as few times as is needed.

 

Another issue that some of the scholars discussed regarding al-istikhārah is whether or not one can make it on behalf of someone else. The Shafiʿis and Malikis held that it is permissible to do so because the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Whosoever amongst you is able to benefit his brother, then he should do so.”[4] The Maliki scholar al-Ḥaṭṭāb said that he did not find any evidence indicating that this should or should not be done but that he did find some of the shuyūkh doing it. The Hanafis and Hanbalis did not discuss this issue.

 

The Results of al-Istikhārah

Contrary to popular opinion, one does not wait for a dream after al-istikhārah. Rather, one should look to what their heart opens up to or what is made easy for them. However, one should try as hard as possible to make sure that they are not mixing their istikhārah with their own desires and leanings and try to make sure that it is as pure and sincere as possible. A person can also look to the negative effects of al-istikhārah to know how it was answered. For example, if they were turned away from a particular decision and then did not find anything in their heart for it thereafter they can know that it was turned away from them, as mentioned in the supplication itself.

 

And God knows best.

 

 

*Extracted from al-Mawsūʿah al-Fiqhhiyyah al-Kuwaytiyyah


 


[1] Al-Adhkār

[2] The Malikis, Hanafis, Shafiʿis, and Hanbalis.

[3] Narrated by al-Bukhārī.

[4] Narrated by Muslim.